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Biopsies is a procedure of taking tissue samples to detect abnormalities in the body. Although often used to diagnose cancer, a biopsy can also be used to diagnose other conditions, such as inflammation or infection
Biopsies is a medical procedure performed by taking a tissue sample for further examination using a microscope. This procedure is usually recommended by doctors when the initial examination reveals abnormal tissue growth in certain parts of the body.
The examination of biopsy tissue samples is generally carried out by a pathologist. The results of the biopsy are then given to the doctor who sends a request for an examination to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment.
Conditions Requiring Biopsy
Biopsies are generally done to confirm the diagnosis of whether a person has cancer and determine the spread of cancer or its stage. In addition, a biopsy can also be performed for several purposes, such as:
- Checking blood cells in the bone marrow
- Detects some skin problems, such as changes in the shape of moles suspected of skin cancer
- Checking the progress of the disease, such as inflammation of the liver or kidneys or infection of the lymph nodes
- Ensure non-cancer-related conditions, eg colitis
- Evaluating rejection reactions in transplant organs
Types of Biopsy That Can Be Done
Before the biopsy procedure, the doctor will perform a series of physical examinations and supporting examinations, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to detect abnormalities in certain body parts. After that, the doctor will determine the type of biopsy to be performed.
The following are types of biopsies to take tissue samples from the body:
1. Needle biopsy
One of the widely used biopsy techniques to take body tissue is using a needle. There are two methods of needle biopsy, namely fine needle biopsy and core needle biopsy.
A fine needle aspiration is used to take tissue or fluid samples, while a core needle biopsy is used to take larger tissue samples.
Before this procedure, the doctor will inject a local anesthetic into the patient. In the process, a CT scan or ultrasound is often used as a doctor's tool to direct the needle to the sampling location.
2. Punch biopsy
A punch biopsy is performed by making small incisions to take a sample of the top layer of skin tissue using special surgical instruments. Prior to this procedure, the doctor will inject a local anesthetic to numb the area.
After a punch biopsy, the incision will be closed with stitches. This procedure is usually used to detect various types of skin problems, such as infection and inflammation.
3. Excisional biopsy
Excisional biopsy is used to remove all tissue that is suspected to be a sign of a disease, such as a lump under the skin. The patient will be anesthetized so as not to feel pain and the type of anesthesia is usually adjusted to the location of the tissue to be removed.
4. Endoscopic Biopsy
Endoscopic biopsy is done by inserting a thin, elastic tube equipped with a light and camera and a cutting tool into the body. A cutting device at the end of the tube is used to make it easier for doctors to take tissue samples.
In addition to a small incision in the skin, the tube can also be inserted through the nose, mouth, urinary or urethral opening, or anus, depending on the location to be examined. This type of biopsy is usually performed in conjunction with an endoscopic examination.
5. Surgical biopsy
This type of biopsy is performed during the operation process. Under certain conditions, tissue samples can be examined immediately and the results will appear immediately so that the doctor can immediately determine further treatment steps, including tissue removal.
A surgical biopsy may also be performed when other biopsy methods are difficult or unable to reach the part of the body that needs to be examined.It is generally safe to perform a surgical biopsy. However, in rare cases, this type of biopsy carries a risk of bleeding or infection.
6. Bone marrow biopsy
Bone marrow biopsy is usually done to detect various blood disorders, such as anemia, leukemia, or lymphoma. Before starting this biopsy procedure, the doctor will inject a local anesthetic to reduce pain.
Before undergoing a biopsy procedure, it is recommended that you tell your doctor about any medications or supplements that you are currently taking. You also need to tell your doctor if you are allergic to certain medications.
After undergoing the biopsy procedure, you can return to your normal activities. However, if you undergo a biopsy procedure using general anesthesia, it is recommended to stay in the hospital for at least one night to recover.
If you experience fever, pain and bleeding at the biopsy site during the recovery process, consult a doctor immediately. In addition, if the biopsy results show abnormalities, discuss further treatment plans with the doctor.