Table of contents:
Hernia surgery is the main way to treat hernias. This action generally needs to be done immediately in cases of hernias that are large, painful, or accompanied by impaired bowel function. There are two common hernia surgery techniques, namely open surgery and laparoscopy
Hernia surgery is indeed the only way to cure hernia disease. This procedure is generally recommended when the patient's hernia or hemorrhoids does not improve, gets worse, or has already caused dangerous complications.
Knowing Hernia Disease
Hernia occurs when an organ or fatty tissue pushes against a weak muscle or tissue wall around it. The most common type of hernia in Indonesia is inguinal hernia.
An inguinal hernia occurs when part of an organ in the abdominal cavity pushes against the membrane lining the abdominal cavity or weak abdominal wall muscles. As a result, this condition will form a lump or swelling in the groin, it can even cause part of the scrotum (testicle bag) to enlarge.
Inguinal hernia that is not treated can cause several complications, such as:
1. Incarcerated hernia
This occurs when the intestines get stuck in the abdominal wall or in a hernia sac, interfering with bowel performance and movement. This condition can cause severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty passing or passing stools.
2. Strangulated hernia
Hernia is characterized by a pinched bowel condition, so that blood flow in that part is blocked. Strangulated hernia will cause tissue death (gangrene) in the intestine. This can then lead to severe bleeding or sepsis which can be life-threatening for the sufferer.
Inguinal hernia can be treated with hernia surgery procedures, be it open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.
Open Hernia Surgery
This operation is done by making an incision in the groin area. Open hernia surgery is usually recommended for inguinal hernia patients who have complaints of pain or indigestion. This operation is also more recommended for patients in good he alth.
Here are some complete explanations regarding open hernia surgery:
Before the operation begins, the patient will be given anesthesia or anesthesia, either total anesthesia or spinal anesthesia which only makes half of the body anesthetized.
In spinal anesthesia, the patient can stay awake during the operation, but the area to be operated on will be numb, so the patient will not feel pain. Meanwhile, general or general anesthesia will put the patient to sleep during the operation and will not feel any pain.
After the anesthetic effect takes effect, the surgeon will sterilize the incision site, then make a single incision 6–8 cm long above the hernia lump. The protruding fat or intestinal tissue is then placed back into the abdomen.
Furthermore, a sheet of synthetic net is placed on the abdominal wall, precisely at the hole where the hernia comes out, to strengthen the gap in the weak abdominal muscle wall. Installation of this net can also prevent hernia recurrence.
Finally, after the organ has been returned to its original position, the incision will be closed again with stitches.
If there is a strangulation and a part of the intestine is damaged, it may need to be cut and the he althy ends of the intestine joined together. Open hernia surgery is included in the category of major surgery.
Therefore, patients undergoing this surgery usually have to stay in the hospital for 4-5 days after the operation is completed.
Recovery time required after open hernia surgery generally ranges from 2–6 weeks.
During the recovery process, there may be pain or tenderness around the surgery area. Usually the doctor will prescribe pain medication to overcome it. To prevent infection, doctors will also usually prescribe antibiotics.
When recovering, patients are advised to avoid strenuous activities for 4–6 weeks, until their condition is fully recovered. Light activities, such as shopping or walking around the room, may be possible after 1−2 weeks postoperatively.
Light exercise, such as walking, is also allowed, because this exercise tends to help the healing process. To return to driving or driving, patients are advised to wait for about 6-8 weeks, until the surgery is completely healed or when the pain is no longer felt.
Open hernia surgery is relatively safe, but the possibility of complications still exists. This procedure can sometimes lead to complications, such as infection, blood clots, chronic pain, or nerve damage in the abdominal cavity or around the testicles.
However, if the surgical procedure is carried out correctly and postoperative care goes well, the risk of complications is relatively small.
Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery
Laparoscopy is a hernia surgery performed by making a small incision measuring 1-2 cm at the bottom of the navel. This small incision is made to insert an instrument called a laparoscope (a small tube equipped with a camera and light), so that it can capture images of the internal organs of the abdomen.
The following is a complete explanation regarding hernia surgery with laparoscopic techniques that you need to understand:
Usually the patient will fast for 6-12 hours before surgery. The use of drugs such as blood thinners, such as aspirin and warfarin, should be discontinued several days before surgery to avoid bleeding.
When the operation is about to start, the patient is given general anesthesia first to sleep during the surgery. Next, the doctor will make a small 1–1.5 cm long incision in the abdomen (near the navel) to insert a small tube and a laparoscope.
Pipes are inserted to drain carbon dioxide gas into the stomach until the stomach bulges. This way, doctors can see the patient's internal organs more clearly and have more room to work.
Then a laparoscope is inserted through this tube. The laparoscope will display an image on the monitor screen, so that the doctor can see the condition of the organs and abdominal cavity around the hernia protrusion site.
After that, the doctor will insert a small surgical instrument through the incision to perform a repair procedure or repair of the hernia condition. When finished, carbon dioxide gas will be expelled from the abdominal cavity and the incision is closed again with stitches.
The pain after laparoscopic surgery will be lighter than the pain after open hernia surgery. Laparoscopic hernia surgery patients can return to their routine a week faster, compared to patients undergoing open surgery.
Similar to open hernia surgery, laparoscopic hernia surgery can also cause complications, such as infection, pain, scar tissue and tissue adhesions or adhesions in the abdominal cavity or intestines.
The hernia surgery procedure is considered safe to do. However, you need to go to the hospital immediately, if during your recovery at home you have a fever, severe abdominal pain, the area of the incision site is painful and red, one leg is sore and swollen, pus is coming out of the stitches after surgery, or painful when urinating. small water.
The thing to remember, even though you have had hernia surgery, does not guarantee that you will then become free from the risk of hernia. This means that you still need to be careful not to get a hernia again in the future.
If you intend to undergo hernia surgery, consult and ask your doctor first about the procedure that is suitable and safe for your condition. That way, the risk of complications can be minimized.