Table of contents:
- Knowing Diseases That Can Be Prevented by DPT Immunization
- Providing DPT Immunization
- DPT Immunization Side Effects
DPT immunization is a vaccine given to protect children from diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. This vaccine needs to be given before the child is 1 year old. Not only protecting, the DPT vaccine can also prevent complications caused by these three diseases
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are three different types of diseases that are very dangerous for he alth. These three diseases caused by bacterial infections can lead to serious complications and even death if left untreated by a doctor.
Therefore, the government includes DPT immunization as one of the complete basic immunizations that must be obtained by children before the age of 1 year.
Knowing Diseases That Can Be Prevented by DPT Immunization
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus enter the body in different ways. A person can get diphtheria and pertussis when he accidentally inhales or is exposed to splashes of saliva released by the patient when coughing and sneezing.
Meanwhile, the tetanus bacteria can enter the body through wounds on the skin, such as wounds caused by nails and needles or wounds from animal bites. The following is a further explanation of the three diseases:
Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diptheriae. This disease attacks the mucous membranes of the nose and throat.
Although it doesn't always cause symptoms, this disease is usually characterized by the appearance of a thick, gray membrane or layer that covers the throat and tonsils of the sufferer.
The bacteria that cause diphtheria produce toxins that can damage the tissues in the nose and throat. In fact, this poison can also spread through the bloodstream and cause damage to various organs of the body.
Pertussis or whooping cough is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is highly contagious. This bacterial infection causes inflammation of the respiratory tract.
To fight pertussis bacterial infection, the body produces a lot of mucus in the throat. This is what causes pertussis sufferers often cough with phlegm.
If left untreated, pertussis can lead to various serious complications, such as pneumonia, nosebleeds, brain hemorrhage, lung disorders, and even death.
Tetanus is a disease caused by infection with Clostridium tetani, a bacterium that is commonly found in soil and animal waste. These bacteria can enter the body through wounds on the skin.
When entering the body, the tetanus bacteria will attack the nerves that control the muscles. This causes people with tetanus to experience stiffness or spasms in the jaw, neck, chest, and stomach muscles.
Untreated Tetanus can lead to a number of serious complications, such as respiratory problems, pneumonia, and brain damage due to lack of oxygen supply. In fact, the risk of fractures can occur when the sufferer experiences severe seizures.
DPT immunization can prevent diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Even if infected, children who have received DPT immunization will experience milder symptoms than children who are not immunized.
Providing DPT Immunization
Based on the immunization schedule issued by the Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI), primary DPT immunization is given 3 times and additional DPT or booster immunizations are given 2 times.
The following is the dosage and schedule for giving DPT immunization to children:
- Doses 1–3 are given when the child is 2, 3, and 4 months old or 2, 4, and 6 months old with a dose of 0.5 ml each.
- The fourth dose or the first booster is given as much as 0.5 ml when the child is 18 months old.
- The fifth dose or a second booster of 0.5 ml is given when the child is 5–7 years old.
- The next booster dose can be given to the child when he is 10–18 years old. Tetanus and diphtheria vaccine boosters can also be given again every 10 years.
If the child is sick, the DPT immunization can be postponed until his condition improves.
Children need to get the entire dose of DPT immunization that has been determined. If you accidentally miss a dose of an immunization, go to the nearest he alth facility immediately to receive the missed dose.
DPT Immunization Side Effects
All types of immunization can indeed cause side effects, including DPT immunization. However, these side effects are usually mild and harmless, such as swelling and pain at the injection site, low-grade fever, and decreased appetite.
To relieve pain in the injection area, you can compress the area with a wet cloth. You can also give fever-reducing medicine if your child has a fever after immunization.
In addition, avoid wearing clothes or blankets that are too thick for children after immunization, because this can actually trap heat in the body and make the fever not go down.
In very rare cases, DPT immunization can cause severe allergic reactions in children, ranging from high fever, swelling of the face or throat, seizures, to decreased consciousness.
If your child experiences side effects that don't go away or an allergic reaction after DPT immunization, immediately take them to the doctor or the nearest he alth facility for help.
If necessary, consult your doctor first before immunizing DPT, especially if your child suffers from a disease or has certain medical conditions.