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CABG stands for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, which is a surgical procedure to treat coronary heart disease. This procedure is specially done for those who have serious blockage or narrowing of the arteries
A CABG procedure can simply be described as creating a new route around a narrowed or blocked artery. This new route is needed to keep blood flowing smoothly so that the heart muscle still gets enough oxygen and nutrients.
Why Does Someone Need CABG?
The heart organ works relentlessly in pumping blood throughout the body. Blood supply throughout the body is flowed through arteries. Unfortunately as time goes on and a person ages, the performance of the arteries in doing their job will decline.
Atherosclerosis will appear when the arteries experience hardening and narrowing caused by the presence of cholesterol plaques that accumulate on their walls, so that blood flow decreases. This condition is known as coronary heart disease. Smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and advancing age are examples of factors that accelerate the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Coronary heart disease can then cause complications in the form of angina, or what is commonly referred to as angina sitting. Angina is chest pain due to a limited supply of oxygen-rich blood. If it is severe, then the CABG procedure can be one solution.
In addition, coronary heart disease can also cause the release of atherosclerotic plaques that can cause blockages. This blockage blocks the blood supply to the heart, causing a heart attack. To avoid this, doctors will usually recommend a CABG procedure.
Check Before Performing CABG Procedure
However, patients do not immediately receive therapy through CABG. To determine whether to undergo CABG or not, the patient must pass the following examinations.
The heart, lungs and pulse will be checked to determine whether CABG is appropriate. The doctor will also ask about how often, how long, and how severe the symptoms related to the illness have lasted. Symptoms associated with coronary heart disease are usually chest pain and difficulty breathing.The doctor will also determine which part of the artery is blocked, how severe the blockage is and whether the patient has other types of heart damage.
This examination will show how strong the heart is beating and the regularity of the rhythm, whether it is stable or not. An EKG is a simple test that shows the electrical activity of the heart. Through the ECG examination will be known how fast the time taken by the flow of electricity when exploring each part of the heart. Signs of a heart attack before and when it occurs, can be seen through the EKG. Especially for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), ECG can also be used to check if there is damage to the heart.
Cardiac stress test
In the cardiac exercise test, the patient will be asked to run to make the heart work hard and beat fast, while at the same time cardiac record test (ECG) was performed.Patients who cannot run are likely to be given drugs that increase their heart rate. Why do you have to do a heart test like this? Because heart problems are easier to diagnose when they work hard and beat faster.
Through this test, the doctor can determine the size and shape of the patient's heart, including the condition of the chambers and valves. The way this tool works is by using sound waves to produce moving images of the heart. Echocardiography can also map areas of poor blood flow to the heart, which heart muscle is abnormal, or injury to the heart muscle caused by poor blood flow in the past..Signs of CHD can also be found out through a stress echocardiogram test. This type of test is a type of echocardiogram test. The goal is to determine the level of decreased blood flow to the heart when the body is active.
Coronary angiography and cardiac catheterization
Coronary angiography is a test that uses special dyes and X-rays to show the inside of the heart's blood vessels.To insert dye into the blood vessels, the doctor will use a procedure called cardiac catheterization. This procedure is done to help doctors find blockages that could be causing a heart attack.
How is the CABG Process?
CABG procedures in hospitals generally take 3-6 hours. The length of time the operation process depends on how many blood vessels are grafted to replace the function of the narrowed blood vessels. An alternative route for blood flow can be to use a vein from the leg (saphenous vein a), chest (internal mammary artery) or arm (radial artery is).
After the blood vessel to be grafted is removed, the doctor will make an incision in the breastbone so that it can reach the heart. When inserting a blood vessel graft, the heart will be temporarily stopped from pumping.
While this is going on, the function of the heart to pump blood to other parts of the body will be replaced by a machine outside the body. Thus, other organs such as the brain, kidneys, and the rest of the body will continue to receive oxygen as long as blood flow to the heart is improved.
Shortly after the blood flow to the heart has been restored, the patient's heart is given a controlled electric shock so that it starts pumping again. At the end of the procedure, the sternum will be reattached with wire and the skin is sutured with thread.
In general, patients who undergo CABG procedures require hospitalization of up to one week. The recovery period for this surgery usually ranges from six weeks to two months. For optimal healing process, it is important to improve a he althier lifestyle.