Know the Type and How to Choose the Right Contraceptive Tool

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Know the Type and How to Choose the Right Contraceptive Tool
Know the Type and How to Choose the Right Contraceptive Tool
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How to choose the right contraceptive method is important to know if you and your partner want to delay pregnancy. Not only to prevent pregnancy, certain types of contraceptives can also prevent sexually transmitted infections

Every couple needs to choose which type of contraception is suitable and safe to use to delay pregnancy. This is because each contraceptive has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Therefore, it is important to know the level of effectiveness of each contraceptive method to suit the needs of you and your partner.

Different Types of Contraceptives and Their Advantages and Disadvantages

To prevent pregnancy, not a few couples rely more on the use of contraception. Various types of contraceptives that can be used include:

1. Birth control pills

The birth control pill is the most commonly used form of contraception. This contraceptive contains the hormones progestin and estrogen to prevent ovulation. Birth control pills generally consist of 21–35 tablets that must be taken in one cycle or continuously.

Pros:

  • High effectiveness rate with only 8% failure rate
  • Menstruation becomes smooth and cramps decrease during menstruation, but there are also types of birth control pills that can stop menstruation

Disadvantages:

  • Unable to prevent sexually transmitted diseases
  • It can cause side effects, such as increased blood pressure, blood clots, bloody discharge, and hardened breasts
  • Not suitable for women with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, liver disorders, breast cancer and uterine cancer, migraines, and high blood pressure

2. Male condom

Not only birth control pills, male condoms are also commonly used to prevent pregnancy. Condoms are usually made of latex and work by blocking sperm from entering the vagina and reaching the egg.

Pros:

  • Affordable price
  • Practical and easy to use
  • Can prevent sexually transmitted diseases
  • Easy to get in stores or pharmacies

Disadvantages:

  • Failure rate reaches 15%, especially if condom use is not appropriate
  • Can only be used once and must be replaced after ejaculation

3. Inject KB

KB injections are contraceptives that contain the hormone progestin and are able to stop ovulation. Based on the period of use, there are two types of KB injections, namely 3-month and 1-month birth control injections.

Pros:

  • More effective and practical than birth control pills
  • Failure rate for 1 month birth control injection can be less than 1% if used correctly

Disadvantages:

  • The price is relatively expensive
  • Requires regular visits to the doctor or midwife every month
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases
  • May cause side effects, such as bloody discharge
  • Menstrual cycle becomes irregular
  • Not recommended for use in women who have a history of migraine, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, stroke, and heart attack

4. Implant

KB implants or implants are small contraception devices shaped like matchsticks. Birth control implants work by slowly releasing the hormone progestin which functions to prevent pregnancy for 3 years.

This contraceptive is used by inserting it under the skin, usually the upper arm.

Pros:

  • Very effective with less than 1% failure rate
  • Long lasting up to 3 years

Disadvantages:

  • The cost is relatively expensive
  • Menstrual cycle becomes irregular
  • Risk of bruising and swelling of the skin at the beginning of the installation
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases

5. IUD

Intrauterine device (IUD) is a contraceptive device made of plastic and shaped like the letter T that is placed in the uterus. The IUD or spiral contraception can prevent pregnancy by preventing sperm from fertilizing an egg.

There are two types of IUDs that are commonly used, namely the IUD which is made of copper and can last up to 10 years and the IUD which contains hormones that need to be replaced every 5 years.

Pros:

  • Does not require complicated maintenance
  • Durable

Disadvantages:

  • IUDs made of copper can cause irregular menstruation
  • Risk shifts and gets out of place
  • Risk of side effects, such as the appearance of blood spots in the first 3-6 months of use
  • High cost

6. Female condom

The female condom is a plastic that serves to envelop the vagina. There is a plastic ring on the end of the condom, so its position is easy to adjust. Female condoms cannot be used together with male condoms.

Pros:

  • Provides protection from sexually transmitted diseases
  • Keeps body temperature better than male condoms

Disadvantages:

  • Less effective than male condoms
  • An annoying sound appears when you use it
  • One time use
  • Failure rate reached 21%

7. Spermicide

Spermicide is a contraceptive product that is used in the vagina before sexual intercourse. This product is in the form of a jelly, cream, membrane, or foam containing chemicals to kill sperm.

Pros:

  • Affordable price
  • Easy to use

Disadvantages:

  • Some spermicides need to be applied 30 minutes before sexual intercourse
  • Risk of irritation to intimate organs if used too often
  • It needs to be used with other contraception tools, such as condoms
  • Failure rate reached 29%

8. Diaphragm

Diaphragm is a contraception device made of dome-shaped rubber. This contraceptive is placed in the cervix before sexual intercourse and is generally used in conjunction with spermicide.

Pros: affordable price

Disadvantages:

  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases
  • Failure rate reaches 16%, especially if not worn properly
  • Installation must be done by a doctor
  • Must be removed during menstruation

9. Cervical cap

Cervical cap is shaped like a diaphragm, but is smaller in size. This contraceptive is generally used in conjunction with spermicides and serves to block the passage of sperm into the uterus.

Pros:

  • Affordable price
  • Can be used up to 2 times

Disadvantages:

  • Failure rate reaches 30% for women who have had children and 15% for those who have not had children
  • Installation needs to be done by a doctor
  • Must be removed during menstruation
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases

10. Koyo ortho evra

Koyo ortho evra is used by placing it on the skin and changing it once a week for 3 weeks. The way this patch works is by releasing hormones that are just as effective as those found in birth control pills.

Pros:

  • No need to bother remembering to take pills
  • Menstruation becomes smoother and reduces cramps during menstruation

Disadvantages:

  • The price is relatively expensive
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases
  • Can cause side effects similar to the side effects of birth control pills

11. Vaginal ring

The vaginal ring or NuvaRing is a plastic ring that is placed inside the vagina. NuvaRing works by releasing the same hormones as birth control pills.

Pros:

  • Only needs to be replaced once a month
  • Menstrual cycle becomes smoother

Disadvantages:

  • The price is relatively expensive
  • May cause irritation and side effects similar to birth control pills and patches
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases

12. Permanent KB

If you and your partner are sure you don't want to have children again, permanent family planning or sterile family planning can be an option. This method of contraception is highly effective or almost 100% effective in preventing pregnancy.

The type of permanent family planning for each person is different, depending on the gender. In men, permanent family planning is done by vasectomy, while in women it can be done by tubectomy or the process of binding the fallopian tubes.

Preventing Pregnancy the Natural Way

In addition to the contraceptive methods above, some couples may choose natural ways to prevent pregnancy. The following are some methods that are classified as natural family planning:

Calculating the fertile period calendar

This calendar calculation method is done by recording the fertile period every month and avoiding sex during that period. Women can determine their fertile period or ovulation by checking their body temperature and seeing changes in vaginal fluid.

Pros: does not require money, tools, or drugs

Disadvantages:

  • Must limit sex for a few days
  • There are often errors in calculating the fertile period, so the opportunity to get pregnant is still there
  • Not suitable for women with irregular menstrual cycle

Pulling the penis out before ejaculation

You and your partner can also prevent pregnancy by pulling the penis out before ejaculation during penetration.

Pros: very effective with 4% failure rate

Disadvantages:

  • Difficult to do if your partner often experiences premature ejaculation
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases

For those of you and your partner who want to delay pregnancy, the various contraceptive options above can be chosen according to their individual comfort and needs.

If you still have questions about how to choose contraception or are confused about choosing the right contraception for you and your partner, try to consult a doctor.

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