Lopinavir-Ritonavir - Benefits, dosage and side effects

Lopinavir-Ritonavir - Benefits, dosage and side effects
Lopinavir-Ritonavir - Benefits, dosage and side effects
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Lopinavir-ritonavir is a combination antiviral drug that is used as a support drug to treat HIV infection. Lopinavir-ritonavir is an antiviral protease inhibitor class. The combination of the two drugs can be used with ARV drugs to reduce the amount of HIV virus in the blood

Lopinavir-ritonavir works by inhibiting the process of dividing the virus, so the virus cannot infect the body. In addition to helping treat HIV infection, lopinavir-ritonavir is also being studied to treat Corona virus infection or COVID-19.However, until now there has been no satisfactory result.

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Although lopinavir-ritonavir does not cure HIV, these drugs can slow the progression of AIDS (a cruired immunodeficiency syndrome) and complications from HIV infection.

Lopinavir-ritonavir trademark: Aluvia

What is Lopinavir-Ritonavir?

Class Antivirus
Categories Prescription drugs
Benefits Supporting drugs to treat HIV infection
Used by Adults and children
Lopinavir-ritonavir for pregnant and lactating women Category C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women.

Drugs should only be used if the expected benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Lopinavir-ritonavir is absorbed into breast milk. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Medicine form Tablets

Warnings Before Using Lopinavir-Ritonavir:

  • Do not use the combination drug lopinavir-ritonavir if you have a history of allergies to one or both of these drugs.
  • Do not take lopinavir-ritonavir if you have severe liver dysfunction.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have a history of heart disease, liver disease, pancreatic disorders, diabetes, high cholesterol, hemophilia, or hypokalemia.
  • Tell your doctor if you or any member of your family has a history of long QT syndrome.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking birth control pills. This is because lopinavir and ritonavir can reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including herbal medicines and supplements.
  • If you have an allergic reaction or overdose after taking lopinavir-ritonavir, see a doctor immediately.

Dosage and Instructions for Use of Lopinavir-Ritonavir

The dose of lopinavir-ritonavir given to treat HIV infection will be adjusted according to the patient's age, body weight (BB), and body size (m2), as well as the comparison of preparations lopinavir-ritonavir drug used and the presence or absence of other drugs.Here is the explanation:

Adult

The preparations used are:

  • Lopinavir 100 mg and ritonavir 25 mg
  • Lopinavir 200 mg and ritonavir 50 mg

If used with antiretroviral drugs that do not contain efavirenz, nevirapine, or nelfinavir, the dose of lopinavir-ritonavir given is 400 mg/100 mg twice daily, or 800 mg/200 mg once daily.

If used with other antiviral drugs containing efavirenz, nevirapine, or nelfinavir, the dose given is 500 mg/125 mg 2 times a day.

Children 2 years old

The preparations used are:

  • Lopinavir 100 mg and ritonavir 25 mg.

If used with antiretroviral drugs that do not contain efavirenz, nevirapine, or nelfinavir, the weight-adjusted dose of lopinavir-ritonavir is:

  • Weight 15–25 kg: 200 mg/50 mg, 2 times a day
  • Weight >25–35 kg: 300 mg/75 mg, 2 times a day
  • Weight >35–40 kg: 400 mg/100 mg, 2 times a day
  • Weight 40 kg: same as adult dose

If used with other antiviral drugs containing efavirenz, nevirapine, or nelfinavir, the dose of lopinavir-ritonavir will be given according to body size, namely:

  • ≥0, 8 to <1, 2 m2: 300 mg/75 mg, 2 times daily
  • ≥1, 2 to <1, 4 m2: 400 mg/100 mg, 2 times daily
  • ≥1, 4 m2: 500 mg/125 mg, 2 times daily

How to Use Lopinavir-ritonavir Correctly

Lopinavir-ritonavir should only be given by a doctor. Use lopinavir-ritonavir according to your doctor's advice or instructions for taking the drug. Do not increase or decrease the dose without a doctor's prescription.

Do not stop using the drug without consulting your doctor first, even if your condition has improved. Stopping the drug suddenly can make the condition more difficult to treat.

Lopinavir-ritonavir can be taken with or without food. Try not to miss the schedule for taking medication. This can increase the risk of the virus becoming more resistant to the drug.

If you forget to take lopinavir-ritonavir, take the drug immediately if the break with the next schedule is not too close. If it's close, ignore it and don't double the dose.

Because the dose for children is determined based on body weight or body size, the dose of the drug given may vary according to the child's weight or body size. Consult a doctor first before changing the dose.

Keep lopinavir-ritonavir in the original packaging of the drug and do not transfer it to another place. Store the medicine at room temperature, away from moisture and heat. Keep out of reach of children.

Interaction of Lopinavir-Ritonavir with other drugs and ingredients

When used together with certain drugs, lopinavir-ritonavir can cause several interactions, including:

  • Increased risk of side effects of drugs metabolized by CYP3A enzymes, such as CCBs (calcium channel blockers), rosuvastatin, and immunosuppressants
  • Increased blood levels of pimozide, quetiapine, cisapride, ranolazine, amiodarone, dronedarone, alfuzosin, colchicine, astemizole, terfenadine, and lurasidone
  • Increased risk of serious side effects due to lovastatin, simvastatin, sildenafil, tadalafil, oral midazolam, triazolam, fusidic acid, elbasvir/grazoprevir, and ergot alkaloids
  • Decrease in drug effectiveness when used with CYP3A enzyme inhibitors, such as rifampicin

Side Effects and Dangers of Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Side effects that can occur after taking lopinavir-ritonavir include:

  • Body feels weak
  • Bloated
  • Diarrhea
  • Losing weight
  • Headache
  • Sleep disorders
  • Muscle pain
  • Numbness, tingling, or burning sensation in the hands and feet

Do an examination to the doctor, if the complaints mentioned above do not subside and are getting worse. Immediately see a doctor if you experience an allergic reaction to the drug or experience side effects such as:

  • Heart pounding
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizzy or feel like passing out
  • Vomiting
  • stomach ache
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain in right upper abdomen
  • Skin and whites of the eyes are yellow (jaundice)

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