Paranoid - Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Paranoid - Symptoms, causes and treatment
Paranoid - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Paranoid is a personality disorder characterized by suspicion and distrust of others for no apparent reason. People with this disease tend to think, behave, and act unusually towards other people

Paranoid sufferers will experience constant paranoia in other people. He tends to think that other people will do evil, hurt, or deceive him in the future.

Paranoid - Alodokter

If left untreated, paranoid personality disorder can interfere with the sufferer's life and daily activities. This disease is also at risk of causing depression, agoraphobia, and plunging the sufferer into drug use, or other criminal acts.

Paranoid Cause

The cause of paranoid personality disorder is not yet known. However, research suggests that paranoia is linked to genetics and psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia or delusional disorder.

Paranoid is more experienced by men than women. Generally, this disease appears in childhood or early adolescence.

Paranoid risk factors

Although the cause is unknown, there are several factors that can increase a person's risk of experiencing paranoid disorder, namely:

  • Has a family suffering from paranoid personality disorder
  • Had a bad experience as a child, such as physical or emotional trauma

Paranoid Symptoms

Patients with paranoid personality disorder are individuals who are always suspicious. He believes that other people will constantly try to humiliate, hurt, or threaten him. These suspicions tend to arise for no particular reason.

Paranoid sufferers generally don't find their behavior strange, but other people will perceive the behavior as a form of hostility. As a result, sufferers find it difficult to build relationships and trust with others.

Some of the symptoms that can be found in people with paranoid personality disorder are:

  • Doubting the commitment, loy alty, or trustworthiness of others, and instead believing that others will take advantage of or deceive them
  • Hesitating to reveal his personal information to others, for fear that the information will be used against him
  • Not easy to forgive and easy to hold grudges
  • Very sensitive to criticism
  • Being suspicious of other people's speech, gestures, or appearance
  • Replying to other people's words quickly and furiously
  • Constantly suspicious of partner for no apparent reason
  • Has a cold, introverted personality, gets jealous easily, and keeps a distance from other people
  • Tends to want to dominate a relationship, in order to avoid deception or betrayal
  • Always feel right when facing a problem or conflict
  • It's hard to relax
  • Has a hostile, stubborn, and a lot of excuses
  • Tend to have a bad stigma towards other people, especially those with different cultural backgrounds

When to see a doctor

Consult a doctor if you feel your behavior and suspicions are interfering with your relationship with other people. Paranoid personality disorder that is not treated properly can get worse over time.

If it lasts for a long time, this disease can cause various problems in the sufferer's life.

Paranoid Diagnosis

The doctor will evaluate your medical history and physical examination. The doctor will also carry out several tests to rule out the possibility that the symptoms are caused by other diseases.

Furthermore, the doctor will diagnose the patient based on the criteria in DSM-5 (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition). A patient is diagnosed with paranoia when he/she constantly feels suspicious and distrusts others, accompanied by four or more of the following symptoms:

  • Feeling that others will harm or deceive him for no apparent reason
  • Judging that people around him or his co-workers are unreliable
  • Closing himself to tell something, because he thinks the information can be used to slander or deceive him
  • Meaning an ordinary event excessively and as something that can threaten him
  • Revenge when you feel hurt or hurt
  • Replying with anger when thinking that other people are looking down on him
  • Always suspect that his partner is unfaithful even for no apparent reason

A thorough assessment of the patient's life will also be carried out, starting from childhood, school, life at work, and the patient's relationship with his partner. The doctor will also ask the patient's response to certain situations.

After the results of the examination are obtained, the doctor will determine the severity of the patient's paranoia, then plan the appropriate treatment method.

Paranoid Treatment

Treating paranoid personality disorder is the same as treating other personality disorders. However, treating paranoia can be more difficult, as the patient will tend to suspect the doctor. Therefore, the doctor will first try to build a cooperative relationship with the patient.

The treatment for paranoid patients is psychotherapy and drugs. Here is the explanation:


One form of psychotherapy to treat paranoid personality disorder is cognitive behavioral therapy. This therapy is considered the most effective method to help patients adjust their deviant thought patterns and behaviors.

In cognitive behavioral therapy, patients will be taught how to identify an action or behavior performed by another person. After that, the patient will learn to change his mindset so that he can judge that the actions taken by others are not always a threat.


The doctor will prescribe medication to relieve symptoms or reduce depression, anxiety, and symptoms of paranoia. The drugs used include:

  • Antidepressants
  • Anticemas, such as diazepam
  • Antipsychotics, such as thioridazine or haloperidol

Paranoid Complications

If left untreated, paranoid personality disorder can interfere with the sufferer's ability to build and maintain relationships with others. This poses a risk of causing disturbances when attending school, work, or doing social activities.

Paranoid Prevention

Paranoid personality disorder cannot be prevented. However, early treatment can help people who are at risk of developing paranoia. The trick is to learn how to deal with situations that could potentially trigger paranoia.

To avoid the risk of paranoid personality disorder, there are several actions that can be taken, namely:

  • Manage stress well
  • Get enough rest and sleep
  • Maintaining social relations with other people
  • Avoiding consumption of alcoholic beverages
  • Consuming he althy, complete and balanced nutrition
  • Implementing a he althy lifestyle
  • Exercise regularly

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