Decitabine - Benefits, dosage and side effects

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Decitabine - Benefits, dosage and side effects
Decitabine - Benefits, dosage and side effects

Decitabine is a drug to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, including acute myeloblastic leukemia. This drug is a chemotherapeutic agent intended for adult patients

Decitabine works by damaging and triggering cancer cell death. It is hoped that the growth of cancer cells will be inhibited. This drug can also help the bone marrow to produce normal blood cells. That way, the frequency of blood transfusions needed by the patient will be reduced.

Decitabine - alodokter
Decitabine - alodokter

Decitabine trademark: Dacogen

What is Decitabine

Class Prescription drugs
Categories Chemotherapy drugs
Benefits Treating myelodysplastic syndromes, including acute myeloblastic leukemia
Used by Adult
Decitabine for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mothers Category N: Not yet categorized Several animal studies have shown teratogenic effects that can harm the fetus.

Decitabine is not known to be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor.

Medicine Form Powder injection

Warning Before Using Decitabine

Pay attention to the following points before using decitabine:

  • Tell your doctor about any allergies you have. Decitabine should not be used by patients who are allergic to this drug.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease, liver disease, or an infectious disease, such as chickenpox, or herpes.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a pregnancy. Use effective contraception during treatment with decitabine for up to 6 months afterward.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines including supplements or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking decitabine before undergoing certain medical procedures or surgery.
  • As much as possible, avoid close contact with people with infectious diseases that are easily transmitted because they can increase your risk of contracting.
  • Tell your doctor if you plan to vaccinate while on treatment with decitabine.
  • See your doctor immediately if you have an allergic reaction, serious side effects, or overdose after taking decitabine.

Dosage and Rules for Use of Decitabine

The dose of decitabine given will be adjusted to the condition being treated, body surface area (LPT), and the patient's response to the drug.

The following is a breakdown of the general dosage of decitabine given by intravenous infusion (intravenous/IV) for adult patients:

Condition: Myelodysplastic syndrome

  • 3 day regimen

    Dose of 15 mg/m²LPT via IV infusion for 3 hours, every 8 hours for 3 days. The dose will be given again every 6 weeks after the neutrophil granulocyte (ANC) count is at least 1,000/microliter(µL) of blood and the platelet count is at least 50,000/µL of blood.

  • 5 day regimen

    Dose of 20 mg/m²LPT via IV infusion for 1 hour per day, for 5 days. The dose will be given again every 4 weeks after the ANC count is at least 1,000/µL of blood and the number of platelets is at least 50,000/µL of blood.

Condition: Acute myeloblastic leukemia

Dose of 20 mg/m²LPT via IV infusion for 1 hour per day, for 5 days. The dose will be re-administered every 4 weeks. The maximum dose per day is 100 mg/m² LPT IV infusion.

How to Use Decitabine Correctly

Decitabine will be given by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. This drug will be given through an IV into a vein, for 1-3 hours. Always follow the doctor's advice during treatment with this drug.

If treatment with decitabine causes nausea and vomiting, you should not eat before taking medication or eat small but frequent meals. If needed, you can contact your doctor to prescribe medication that can reduce nausea.

Make sure to drink plenty of water while taking decitabine, except when not recommended by your doctor.

During treatment with decitabine, the doctor will ask you to undergo regular complete blood counts to check kidney function, liver function, and blood cell counts.

Interaction of Decitabine with Other Drugs

The effects of drug interactions that can occur if decitabine is used with certain drugs include:

  • Increased severity of inflammation of the mouth when used with palifermin
  • Increased risk of infection or decreased effectiveness of live vaccines, such as BCG vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, MR vaccine, typhoid vaccine, or varicella vaccine
  • Increased risk of blood clots when used with thalidomide
  • Increased risk of decreased white blood cell count when used with clozapine or deferiprone
  • Increased risk of serious infection if used with adalimumab, baricitinib, certolizumab, cladribine, etanercept, fingolimod, golimumab, infliximab, leflunomide, ponesimod, natalizumab, siponimod, teriflunomide, tofacitinib, or upadacitinib
  • Increased risk of serious infection, skin cancer, or lymphoma when used with voclosporin

Side Effects and Dangers of Decitabine

Some of the side effects that can occur after using decitabine include:

  • Redness, pain, or bruising at the injection site
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Sleep disorders
  • Hair loss

Tell your doctor if the above side effects do not improve or get worse. See a doctor immediately if you have an allergic reaction to the drug or serious side effects, such as:

  • Decrease in the number of blood cells that can cause anemia or pancytopenia
  • Easy bruising, bleeding easily, bloody urine, black or bloody stools, or pale skin
  • Fast heart rate
  • Swelling in stomach
  • Increased blood sugar level
  • Infectious disease that can be characterized by symptoms such as fever, sore throat, chills, or cough that doesn't get better