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Muntaber is inflammation of the walls of the digestive tract, especially the stomach and intestines. This condition is usually characterized by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Muntaber or gastroenteritis is a highly contagious disease. This condition can be caused by a viral, bacterial or parasitic infection in the digestive tract. These germs come out with feces and can contaminate food, water, or objects.

Gastroenteritis - Alodokter

If left untreated, vomiting can lead to severe dehydration, which can lead to dangerous complications, ranging from kidney failure to coma. Therefore, vomiting needs to be watched out for and treated immediately if the symptoms get worse.

Cause Vomiting

Muntaber is most often caused by viruses such as Rotavirus and Norovirus. However, viruses such as Astrovirus and Adenovirus can also cause vomiting. In addition to viruses, vomiting can also be caused by:

  • Bacterial infections, such as typhus and dysentery
  • Parasitic infections, such as amebiasis
  • Exposure to chemicals or poisons
  • Reactions to drugs, such as antibiotics

Muntaber is a highly contagious disease. A person can be infected with vomiting due to:

  • Consuming food contaminated with germs that cause vomiting
  • Being close to or in direct contact with sufferers, such as shaking hands
  • Not washing hands properly after defecating or changing a child's diaper

vomiting risk factor

There are several groups of individuals who are at high risk of experiencing vomiting, namely:

  • ChildrenChildren are more susceptible to viral infections, because they don't have a strong immune system yet.

  • Children in school or living in dormitoriesMuntaber is easily contagious in an environment where many people gather in close proximity.

  • Elderly peopleThe immune system will decrease with aging. Therefore, vomiting is easily transmitted to the elderly, especially if they come in contact with people who have the potential to spread germs.

  • People with weak immune systemsPeople who are undergoing chemotherapy or have certain conditions, such as AIDS or cancer, are more at risk of contracting infections because their immune systems are weak.

Symptoms of Vomiting

The main symptoms of vomiting or gastroenteritis are diarrhea, as well as nausea and vomiting, which appear 1-3 days after infection. Symptoms will generally last for 1-2 days, but can be up to 14 days.

People with vomiting may also experience other symptoms, such as:

  • Stomach pain or cramps
  • Lost appetite
  • Headache
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Fever

When to see a doctor

Muntaber can heal by itself in a few days. However, if the symptoms are severe enough, it is recommended to see a doctor immediately.

The following are some symptoms of vomiting that must immediately get treatment from a doctor:

  • Signs of dehydration, such as infrequent urination and dry mouth
  • Fever above 40⁰C
  • Always vomiting after drinking
  • Vomiting that lasts more than 2 days
  • Vomiting blood
  • Pooping with blood

While in infants and children, there are some symptoms of vomiting to watch out for. Immediately take your baby or child to the doctor if they show any of the following symptoms:

  • Sluggish
  • Fussy or irritable
  • The crown stands out
  • Stiff neck
  • severe headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Frequency of urination and decreased urine volume
  • Crying without tears
  • Stomach hurts or swells
  • Fever above 38⁰ C
  • Diarrhea with blood
  • Sluggish

Diagnosis of Vomiting

The doctor will first ask about the patient's symptoms and activities, including the food and drinks consumed, followed by checking the patient's physical condition.

If there is a suspicion that the vomiting is caused by bacteria or parasites, the doctor will perform a stool examination. The patient's stool sample will be examined in the laboratory to determine the cause of vomiting.

In addition to examination of stool samples, doctors can perform other investigations if it is suspected that symptoms are caused by other conditions. These checks include:

  • Blood test
  • USG
  • CT scan
  • MRI

Healing for Vomiting

In most cases, vomiting will go away on its own. It is enough for patients to carry out independent treatment at home, for example by drinking lots of water, especially for children with patients.

If needed, the patient can drink ORS solution to replace lost body fluids and electrolytes. Keep in mind, make sure to follow the instructions for use listed on the packaging.

Patients can also take over-the-counter medicines to relieve symptoms. These drugs include:

  • Paracetamol or ibuprofen, to relieve pain
  • Dimenhydrinate or meclizine, to relieve nausea
  • Loperamide or bismuth subsalicylate, to relieve diarrhea

In cases of vomiting that cause severe nausea and vomiting, treatment at the hospital is urgently needed. The doctor will give you intravenous fluids and medicines, such as:

  • Ondansetron
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promethazine

In addition to the drugs above, the doctor will also give antibiotics, for vomiting caused by bacterial infections. However, antibiotics are only given in cases of severe vomiting.

Once his condition improves, the patient will be advised to consume and also avoid certain foods.

Treatment of vomiting in children

In pediatric sufferers, vomiting should be treated as early as possible. This is because children are more prone to dehydration due to vomiting than adults.

To prevent dehydration in babies, give them water to drink 15-20 minutes after vomiting or diarrhea. The fluids given can be in the form of ORS solution, breast milk, or formula milk. If your child vomits every time he is given fluids, see a doctor. If needed, the child will be hospitalized and given fluids through an IV.

Mutaber Complications

Untreated vomiting can get worse and cause dehydration, which is characterized by complaints in the form of:

  • Urine is dark yellow or dark in color
  • Frequency of urination decreased
  • Dry skin and mouth
  • Dizzy
  • Daze
  • Weak or lethargic

If not treated immediately, dehydration can lead to serious complications, such as brain swelling, kidney failure, seizures, and even coma.

Vomiting Prevention

The following are some ways that can be done to prevent transmission of vomiting:

  • Wash hands regularly.
  • Do not share personal tableware and toiletries.
  • Avoid eating undercooked food.
  • Do not have close contact with people who are sick, especially diarrhea.
  • Wash vegetables or fruits until they are completely clean, before consuming them.
  • Buy bottled drinking water if the water is not guaranteed to be clean.
  • Avoid consuming ice cubes whose cleanliness is not guaranteed, because it could be that the water used to make ice has been contaminated by a virus.
  • Make sure your child gets the rotavirus vaccine from the age of 2 months.

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