Monkey Pox - Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Monkey Pox - Symptoms, causes and treatment
Monkey Pox - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Monkeypox is a viral infection characterized by purulent nodules on the skin. Monkeypox or monkeypox first appeared in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970

At first, monkeypox had symptoms similar to chickenpox, namely watery nodules. As the disease progresses, watery nodules turn into pus and cause lumps in the neck, armpits, or groin due to swollen lymph nodes.

Monkey Pox - Alodokter

Monkeypox is a disease that can be passed from person to person, but its main source is rodents and primates, such as infected mice, monkeys or squirrels.

The Cause of Monkey Pox

Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is a virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus group. This virus is initially transmitted from animals to humans through scratches or bites of animals, such as squirrels, monkeys or mice, which are infected with the monkeypox virus.

Transmission of the monkeypox virus can also occur through direct contact with the body fluids of infected animals.

Monkeypox is spread between humans through splashes of saliva that enter through the eyes, mouth, nose, or wounds on the skin. Transmission can also occur through contaminated objects, such as the patient's clothing. However, human-to-human transmission requires prolonged contact.

Monkey Pox Symptoms

The symptoms of monkeypox will appear 5-21 days after the sufferer is infected with the monkeypox virus. The early symptoms of monkeypox are:

  • Fever
  • Tired or weak
  • Shiver
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Swollen lymph nodes, characterized by lumps in the neck, armpits, or groin

The initial symptoms of monkeypox can last for 1-3 days or more. After that, the rash will appear on the face and spread to other parts of the body, such as the arms or legs.

The rash that appears will develop from a nodule filled with fluid to filled with pus, then break and crust, then cause ulcers on the surface of the skin.

When to see a doctor

Immediately consult a doctor if you feel symptoms such as chickenpox, which is a watery rash, especially if:

  • The contents of the nodule turn to pus
  • There was contact with monkeys or squirrels
  • Just traveled to a country where there are many cases of monkeypox

Monkey Pox Diagnosis

At the initial stage of the examination, the doctor will examine the symptoms and the type of rash that appears. The doctor will also ask for travel history from countries that have cases of monkeypox.

The appearance of a rash alone does not necessarily indicate monkeypox. Therefore, the doctor will conduct a follow-up examination to see the presence of the virus in the body, namely through:

  • Blood test
  • Throat swab test
  • Skin biopsy, by taking a sample of skin tissue for examination with a microscope

Monkey Pox Treatment

Until now, there is no treatment for monkeypox. This disease generally causes only mild symptoms and can heal on its own in 2-4 weeks. While the spread of monkeypox can be prevented with smallpox vaccine (smallpox).

Meanwhile, some countries are using tecovirimat to treat monkeypox.Tecovirimat works by preventing the monkeypox virus from multiplying and spreading to other people. However, the use of this drug is still limited to adult patients weighing 40 kg and children weighing 13 kg.

Please note, monkeypox sufferers need to receive treatment in an isolation room to get monitoring from a doctor and prevent the spread of the disease.

Monkeypox Complications

Monkeypox has a high cure rate. Although rare, this disease can still cause complications.

The risk of serious complications of monkeypox is higher in children, people with weak immune systems, people who have not received vaccinations, and people who live in endemic countries or areas with poor sanitation.

Complications that can occur due to monkeypox are:

  • Bacterial infection
  • Lung infection
  • Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
  • Corneal infection (keratitis)

Monkeypox Prevention

The main prevention of monkeypox is to avoid direct contact with primates and rodents, such as monkeys and squirrels, or people who are infected. Some other preventive steps that can be taken are:

  • Diligently wash hands with soap and water or hand sanitizer, especially before cooking or processing food, before eating, before touching nose or eyes, and before cleaning wounds
  • Avoid sharing the use of cutlery with other people, also do not share the same items with people who are infected with monkeypox
  • Avoiding contact with wild animals or eating their meat
  • Cooking food ingredients, especially meat, until cooked

In order to prevent transmission of monkeypox, doctors will give smallpox vaccine, especially to medical officers who treat monkeypox patients. In addition to the smallpox vaccine, medical staff also need to wear personal protective equipment when treating patients.

If you have a pet that is suspected of being infected with the monkeypox virus, contact your veterinarian immediately and do not let the animal roam. It is important to remember, use gloves and a mask before contact with the pet.

Some of the symptoms of monkeypox to watch out for in animals are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Red eyes
  • runny nose
  • Lost appetite
  • Rash or red spots on the skin
  • hair loss

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