Table of contents:
- Causes of Glandular Fever
- Symptoms of Glandular Fever
- Glandular Fever Diagnosis
- Glandular Fever Treatment
- Complications of Glandular Fever
- Prevention of Glandular Fever
Glandular fever is a disease caused by a viral infection that more often affects teenagers. Symptoms of glandular fever are similar to those of the flu, including fever, sore throat, and chills
Glandular fever is harmless and usually goes away on its own in a few weeks. After recovering, a person who has had glandular fever will be immune to this disease.
Glandular fever in the medical world is known as mononucleosis. This disease is also called the kissing disease because it is often transmitted through kissing.
Causes of Glandular Fever
Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A person can be infected with this virus when exposed to the patient's saliva, for example through kissing and sharing the use of glasses or eating utensils. Transmission can also occur when someone accidentally inhales splashes of the patient's saliva, for example when the patient sneezes or coughs.
In addition to saliva, the EBV virus is also found in the blood and sperm of patients with glandular fever. Therefore, this disease can be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ donation, and sexual intercourse.
Epstein-Barr virus has an incubation period of 4-7 weeks before symptoms appear. Therefore, a person may not realize that he has glandular fever and can transmit this virus to others.
Some studies say that glandular fever can be transmitted to other people for up to 18 months after the patient recovers.
Glandular fever can happen to anyone, but it tends to affect teens in their early 20s.
Symptoms of Glandular Fever
Glandular fever symptoms usually appear 4-6 weeks after a person is infected with the virus that causes this disease. In some patients, the symptoms tend to be mild, even not visible at all.
The initial symptoms of glandular fever resemble flu symptoms, namely:
- Sore throat
- Fever and chills
- Muscle pain
After 1-2 days, other symptoms will appear in the form of:
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
- A red rash like measles, on the face or other parts of the body
- Red spots appear on the roof of the mouth
- Stomach discomfort due to enlarged spleen
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if the above symptoms last for more than 10 days or if you have an unbearable sore throat for more than 2 days. It is also necessary to visit a doctor if you experience the following symptoms:
- The headache is very intense and accompanied by a stiff feeling in the neck
- Swollen lymph nodes occur in many parts of the body
- Stomach ache feels really bad
Glandular Fever Diagnosis
For starters, the doctor will ask the patient's symptoms and medical history. Next, a physical examination will be carried out to see if there are abnormalities, such as swollen lymph nodes and enlarged spleen.
To determine whether the patient has glandular fever, the doctor will perform a blood test. Through a patient's blood sample, the presence of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies can be detected. Blood tests are also used to see if there are abnormalities or increased levels of white blood cells.
Glandular Fever Treatment
Glandular fever usually goes away on its own in a few weeks. During this time, patients are advised to do self-care at home to relieve symptoms. Treatments include:
- Get enough rest
- Gargle with s alt water
- Drink lots of water
- Consuming a balanced nutritious diet
- Take painkillers, such as paracetamol
Please note, adequate rest will speed up the recovery process. Therefore, do not rush to do strenuous activities so that glandular fever does not recur.
Consult your doctor about the right time to return to activities. Usually, the patient takes up to 3 months to fully recover.
Please note, glandular fever can interfere with liver function. Therefore, avoid consuming alcoholic beverages as long as you have not recovered from this disease, because alcohol will further interfere with liver function.
Complications of Glandular Fever
Glandular fever is generally not serious. However, some patients can develop secondary infections in the tonsils (tonsillitis) or sinuses (sinusitis). In rare cases, glandular fever can also cause the following complications:
- Spleen enlarged to tear
- Inflammation of the heart muscle or myocarditis
- Reduction in the number of blood cells so that they become less bloody and bleed more easily
- Closure of the respiratory tract due to enlarged tonsils
- Disorders of the nervous system, eg meningitis, encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome
Prevention of Glandular Fever
As explained above, glandular fever is transmitted through saliva. Therefore, prevention is to avoid contact with the patient's saliva. The way that can be done is:
- Don't kiss people who show symptoms of glandular fever.
- Avoid sharing the use of glasses, cutlery, and toothbrushes with others.
- Make sure to always maintain personal hygiene, including diligently washing your hands.