Proctitis - Symptoms, causes and treatment

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Proctitis - Symptoms, causes and treatment
Proctitis - Symptoms, causes and treatment

Proctitis is inflammation of the wall of the large intestine (rectum). This inflammation makes people with proctitis feel heartburn, stomach and rectal pain, diarrhea, and bloody and slimy stools

Proctitis can be caused by inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, as well as sexually transmitted diseases caused by unprotected anal sex.

proctitis - allodokter
proctitis - allodokter

Proctitis can be prevented by not having multiple sexual partners and always using a condom when having sex.

Causes of Proctitis

Proctitis can be caused by various things, ranging from illness, use of drugs, to an unhe althy lifestyle. The following is a further explanation:

1. Sexually transmitted diseases

Gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes, or chlamydia are sexually transmitted diseases that most often cause proctitis. This condition can occur in people who often have anal sex.

2. Bacterial infection

Bacteria that come from food can cause digestive tract infections, such as typhus, thereby triggering inflammation of the rectum.

3. Inflammation of the intestine

Some people with inflammatory bowel disease, namely Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, also experience inflammation of the rectum.

4. Use of antibiotics without a doctor's supervision

Not only kill bacteria that cause infection, antibiotics can also kill good bacteria that function to maintain digestive tract he alth. As a result, various harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile, can grow and multiply in the rectum.

5. Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy to treat cancers around the rectum, such as prostate or ovarian cancer, can cause inflammation of the rectum.

6. Side effects of surgery

Proctitis can occur in patients who undergo colon surgery and the creation of a stoma (a new artificial hole in the stomach for defecation). The rectum that is not passed by food is at risk of experiencing inflammation.

7. Reaction to protein from food

Babies who drink cow's milk or soy milk are more at risk of developing proctitis. This is because certain proteins found in milk or food can cause gastrointestinal inflammation in some people.

Proctitis Symptoms

Proctitis is characterized by heartburn or a constant urge to defecate. These symptoms can be temporary or prolonged (chronic) for weeks or months. In addition, there are a number of other symptoms that indicate the occurrence of proctitis, namely:

  • Pain in the left side of the stomach, especially when defecating
  • Anal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Feeling incomplete after defecation
  • bloody or slimy CHAPTER

When to see a doctor

Do regular check-ups with the doctor if you have multiple sexual partners. This aims to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases or detect them early.

You also need to go to the doctor if you experience symptoms of proctitis, such as heartburn, pain in the rectum, and bloody or slimy stools.

Proctitis Diagnosis

The symptoms of proctitis are similar to the symptoms of other digestive disorders. Therefore, it is very important to do a doctor's examination to find out the cause of the symptoms experienced by the patient.

In the early stages, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and diseases that the patient has or is currently suffering from. If the patient is suspected of having proctitis, the doctor will perform a stool examination to determine if the proctitis is caused by bacteria.

The gastroenterologist may also perform a colonoscopy to examine the wall of the lower intestine and rectum. During this procedure, the doctor will take a small piece of rectal tissue for examination in the laboratory (rectal biopsy).

In addition to the above examinations, other tests commonly performed to diagnose proctitis are:

  • Blood test, to check for possible infection.
  • Examination of mucus samples from the rectum, to determine whether the patient is suffering from sexually transmitted diseases or not.

The results of these examinations will assist doctors in determining the right type of treatment for the patient.

Proctitis Treatment

Proctitis treatment aims to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and cure infection. The type of treatment given by the doctor depends on the cause of the proctitis, including:

  • Antibiotic medication, if proctitis is caused by a bacterial infection
  • Antiviral medication, if the proctitis is caused by a viral infection, such as herpes
  • Stool softeners and rectal dilation or ablation procedures, if proctitis is caused by side effects of radiotherapy
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressive drugs, if proctitis is caused by colitis

If the symptoms experienced by the patient do not go away, the doctor can perform surgery to remove the damaged tissue to treat proctitis.

In addition to medical treatment, inflammation and minor pain can be relieved by simple ways, such as:

  • Avoiding the habit of eating just before bed, so that the digestive system can rest
  • Soaking the buttocks and groin with warm water for a few minutes
  • Consuming over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Avoid consumption of spicy, sour, or fatty foods
  • Avoid consumption of drinks containing soda, caffeine, and milk
  • Drink lots of water

Proctitis Complications

Proctitis that is not treated properly can cause complications such as:

  • Anemia due to continuous bleeding
  • Purous infection (abscess) in the infected area
  • Ulcers inside the rectal wall
  • Anal fistula, which is an abnormal channel that forms between the intestines and the skin around the anus
  • Rectovaginal fistula, which is an abnormal channel that forms between the rectum and the vagina so that feces can come out into the vagina

Proctitis Prevention

To reduce the risk of getting proctitis, avoid having risky sex, such as having multiple partners and without using a condom. In addition, ways that can be done to prevent proctitis are:

  • Do not have sex first if your partner has sores around the genital organs
  • Do not use drugs and do not consume alcoholic beverages

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